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Jesse Paul & Nez Perce

Jesse Paul & Nez Perce As a young child, Jesse Paul (Ka-khun-nee, Black Raven) encountered significant trauma in his life. His father and all five of his siblings died in the Nez Perce War of 1877. After the tribe surrendered, Jesse and his mother were sent to exile camps at Fort Leavenworth, then Baxter Springs, …

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Zitkála-Šá: Trailblazing American Indian Composer

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oHaggw_Za7g Zitkála-Šá: Trailblazing American Indian Composer The story of Zitkala-Sa (Gertrude Simmons Bonnin) who won the citizenship battle and was the first Native woman to write an opera inspired by the most sacred ceremony among the Plains Tribes.  It was a way to instruct the colonizers about the importance of Indian culture in a language …

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